The MIMO of LTE has a maximum of 8 antennas. 5G extends the MIMO of 4G LTE to 16/32/64/128 antennas, which is called Massive MIMO.
Massive MIMO and beamforming (Beamforming) complement each other.
Massive MIMO realizes three-dimensional precise beamforming and multi-stream multi-user multiplexing technology by integrating more radio frequency channels and antennas.
Massive MIMO is responsible for aggregating multiple antennas at the transmitting end and receiving end, and beamforming is responsible for guiding each signal to the optimal path at the receiving end, thereby improving signal strength, avoiding signal interference, and improving coverage and capacity.
Massive MIMO and beamforming have four main advantages:
1.More accurate the 3D beamforming to improve the received signal strength of the terminal;
2.Simultaneously serve more users on the same frequency (multi-user space separation), improving network capacity;
3.Effectively reduce interference between residential area;
4.Better coverage of far-end and near-end cells
With Massvie MIMO technology, the gain waveforms of the antenna are significantly different under different pattern configurations, different digital azimuth angles, and digital downtilt angle configurations. Therefore, different broadcast beams can be configured according to different scenarios to match various coverage scenarios.
There are three common scenarios as follows:
1.High-rise scene: Use a beam with a relatively wide vertical coverage to improve the vertical coverage.
2.Square scene: Use wide beams at the near point to ensure access, and use narrow beams at the far point to improve coverage.
3.Interference between residential quarters: beams with a relatively narrow horizontal scanning range can be used to avoid strong interference sources.
In conclusion, Massive MIMO combined with beamforming greatly improve the coverage and access speed of 5G. It provides the foundation for the popularization of technology and the application of subdivided industries in the new era of 5G.