What is a TX RX Multicoupler?
Time : 2023-12-18

TX RX Multicoupler is a device used to couple the transmitter and receiver to an antenna. It transmit signals with high port-to-port isolation. A typical multicoupler consists of filters/duplexers, a Low Noise Amplifier and a power divider. It is an important part of a telecommunication system.

Tx & Rx Multicoupler

When multiple receivers or transmitters or radio stations share an antenna, in order to avoid mutual interference between the devices, a coupling device is used between the antenna and each device.

Since the multi-channel coupler can enable multiple transceiver devices to share an antenna at the same time, it can greatly reduce the number of antennas in the system, reduce the cost of communication equipment, and provide electromagnetic compatibility performance of the communication system, and has been widely used in wireless communications.

The application scenarios of wireless communication cover satellite communications, telecommunications, radio and television, radio monitoring, weather radar, civil aviation radar, defense, automated testing of components, etc.

Comparison of TX/RX Multicoupler, TX combiner, RX Splitter

TX/RX Multicoupler: a combination of TX combiner and RX splitter.

TX Combiner: or TX same band combiner, it is a passive structure used to combine transmitters to one antenna. It provides custom band as per request and provides high isolation port to port. The device is commonly in 2-CH, 4-CH, 60CH or 8-CH optional with 1U high compact housing for convenient installing.

RX Splitter: it is a structure used to connect receivers to a single antenna.

There are both passive and active design available.

The active type is embedded with LNA to amplify signals. It helps to compensate for any signal losses after filtration and splitting.


Performance requirements for multicouplers

In order to share an antenna among multiple transceiver devices, it is necessary to ensure that each transceiver device can work normally and achieve the expected results, there are strict requirements over the  multicoupler performances.

1.Each channel must have good frequency selectivity to avoid unnecessary signal interference from other channel signals or useless signals.

2.There should be sufficiently high isolation between any two channels;

3.Each channel should have small insertion loss from input to output;

4.Within the operating frequency band, the input and output should have good matching;

5.The equipment should have sufficient power capacity.

6.The picture below is a reference for the indicators of a VHF band 4TX 4RX transceiver system:

VHF Band 4TX 4RX Transmission and Receiver System

Most TX RX multicouplers are in custom and are developed based on a custom requirement.